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ChatGPT

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ChatGPT

https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/


 しくみ


背景

  • 機械学習
    • 大量のデータから、特徴量を学習
    • 学習された特徴量はベクトルとして保存される
    • それに基づいて「モデル」を作り、予測(判断)する
y = ax + b
      • aとxとbがきまれば、yがきまる

  • 「ニューラルネットワーク」
    • どの特徴量をどれくらい使ってモデルを作るかの仕組み

  • 大規模言語モデル
    • 大量の言語データから、言語の特徴を学習し、言語を産出するモデルを作り、予測(産出)できる。

言語モデルの要:Transitional Probability 遷移確率

  • 次に何が来る確率が高いか:コロケーションの問題
傘を___
 1. さす
 2. 買う
 3. 借りる
 4. 開く
 5. 食べる

生成AI

  • インターフェースを言語を使ってやり取りできるようにした。
    • 検索語を入れるのではなく、質問文で問いかける。
    • 該当ページの一覧を出すのではなく、処理の結果を、言語表現で答える。


 とらえかた


道具、ハサミと同じ

  • 使い方次第

目的に合った使い方をするだけ

  • 目的に合わなければ適切でない、役に立たない
    • ハサミでご飯を食べることはできなくはないが使いにくい
  • 使えるからといって何に使ってもよいわけではない
    • ハサミで人を傷つけることができるが、できるからといってしてよいわけではない
    • そもそも人を傷つけること自体がしてはいけないこと

英語教育の目的:学習者が英語力を身につけるようにする

  • 使った結果、英語能力がつくように使うのが適切
    • 例文の提示
    • 英文・表現のチェック
  • 使った結果、英語能力がつかないのは適切ではない
    • 自分で書かずに、出力をコピペして宿題提出

  • 問いかけ「こういうふうに使って英語力が身につくか?」「自分のためになるか?」

  • 藤井棋士は、
    • 将棋AIを使って、自分の実力を付けました。
    • 自分の代わりに将棋AIに駒をうってもらいません。

https://gendai.media/articles/-/90067

 応用例

音声でやり取りして英会話の練習をする

Bingで英会話

文法的な間違いを指摘して、わかりやすりリストを作ってもらう。

  • Make an item list of grammatical mistakes in the following passage:
    • とかいて、コロンの後に文章を入れる。
    • 次のような形でリストができてくる。
Here’s a list of grammatical mistakes in the passage:

“human” should be “humans”.
“who” should be “those who”.
“todays” should be “today’s”.
“genius” should be “geniuses”.
“knowledges” should be “knowledge”.
“to specialized” should be “specializing”.
“bload” should be “broad”.


例文を提示してもらう(大量の英文を学習し、「自然な(TPの確率の高い)」英文を産出できるので。)


  • Give me a list of five sample sentences in KWIC (Keyword in Context) format, with the keyword "however".

   Life in the countryside is peaceful. However, it can get lonely at times.
   Public transportation is usually convenient. However, it can be affected by delays.
   She planned to arrive at the party on time. However, she got caught in a traffic jam.
   The overall progress of the project is going well. However, we still need to address some budgetary concerns.
   It's important to be punctual. However, sometimes unexpected circumstances can cause delays.

エッセイの例を書いてもらう


  • Write a 500-word argumentative essay consisting of three body paragraphs about education.

語の用法を説明してもらう


  • Explain the differences between "adapt" and "adopt".

語彙レベルの判定

  • Identify Academic Word list level for the following sentence: It's important to be punctual. However, sometimes unexpected circumstances can cause delays.

The Academic Word List (AWL) is a list of words that are commonly found in academic texts and are considered important for academic English proficiency. It consists of 570 word families that cover a range of disciplines and academic contexts.

Analyzing the sentence "It's important to be punctual. However, sometimes unexpected circumstances can cause delays," we can identify the following words from the AWL:

   important (AWL level: Sublist 1)
   punctual (AWL level: Sublist 1)
   sometimes (AWL level: Sublist 2)
   unexpected (AWL level: Sublist 2)
   circumstances (AWL level: Sublist 4)
   delays (AWL level: Sublist 4)

Based on this analysis, the sentence contains several words from Sublist 1 and Sublist 2 of the AWL, which are considered essential for academic reading and writing. Therefore, the sentence can be considered to be at an intermediate to upper-intermediate level of the Academic Word List.

統語解析

  • Analyze the syntactic structure of the following sentence: The pot on the table doesn't have a lid.

The syntactic structure of the sentence "The pot on the table doesn't have a lid" can be analyzed as follows:

   Sentence: The entire sentence is a declarative statement.

   Subject: The subject of the sentence is "The pot on the table." It consists of the determiner "The" and the noun phrase "pot on the table." The noun phrase "pot on the table" functions as a noun phrase modifier, specifying which pot is being referred to.
   Verb phrase: The verb phrase is "doesn't have." It is composed of the auxiliary verb "doesn't" (a contraction of "does not") and the main verb "have." The verb phrase expresses the negation of possession.
   Direct object: The direct object of the verb phrase is "a lid." It is a noun phrase that indicates what the pot is lacking.
   Determiner: The determiner "a" introduces the noun "lid" and indicates that it is an indefinite noun.

To summarize the structure: [Subject] [Verb phrase] [Direct object]

   Subject: The pot on the table
   Verb phrase: doesn't have
   Direct object: a lid

樹形図も描いてくれる

  • Draw the syntactic tree diagram of the following sentence: The pot on the table doesn't have a lid.

              Sentence
                |
          +-----+-------+
          |             |
       Subject    Verb phrase
          |             |
   Determiner      +----+---+
      |            |        |
     The          Verb   Direct object
                    |
                +---+----+
                |        |
             Doesn't    Have
                           |
                         +---+---+
                         |       |
                         A      Lid

In the tree diagram:

   The top level represents the entire sentence.
   The subject "The pot on the table" is connected to the verb phrase "doesn't have" through a horizontal line.
   The subject consists of the determiner "The" and the noun phrase "pot on the table."
   The verb phrase consists of the auxiliary verb "doesn't" and the main verb "have."
   The direct object "a lid" is connected to the verb "have" through another horizontal line.
   The direct object consists of the determiner "a" and the noun "lid."

This tree diagram visually represents the hierarchical structure of the sentence, showing how the different components relate to each other.

 文章をAIが生成したかどうかのチェック:AI Text Classifier

https://openai.com/blog/new-ai-classifier-for-indicating-ai-written-text


 Tips

  • 最近、ChatGPTのサイトはbusyで反応しないので、Microsoft EdgeのBingのチャットを使った方がお手軽。

画像生成は Bing Image Creator

https://www.bing.com/images/create

awesome-chatgpt-prompts

https://github.com/f/awesome-chatgpt-prompts

プラグイン

  • Ask Your PDF
    • PDFファイルを対象に処理、まとめとか
  • LinkReader
    • アドレスを指定して処理、PDFもOK
  • SceneXplain
    • 画像の説明
  • ShowMe
    • 結果を図で表示
  • Visla
    • 動画作成
  • Notable
    • データ分析
  • ChatOCR
  • Speak